One of my standard style recommendations for the editorial practice is: Do not use text Spawn who abuse the number of search result hits as a hanger, because the mesh is really for almost ten years, sorry Swallowed. Replaces it is the time by the number of friends and fans on Facebook pages, which is not much better.
For this text I still have to make an exception. The theme dictates it easy. So: Who the keyword "web report" enters into the input field of the search engine with the colorful logo, reaping almost 2.5 million hits in 0.18 seconds. That was not bad by itself, only in this particular case it is clear from the very first pages of hits that it unambiguously as a recognizable form does not give the "web report" - such as the following randomly selected excerpts from the hit show texts:
"Online PR from a pro: Webreportagen are the inexpensive alternative to image film, such as a corporate portrait, product presentation, virtual tour, ..."
"The Webreportage for the GEO magazine. Reportage An interactive with videos, interviews, photos and comments"
"Gunthild Kupitz, a freelance journalist from Hamburg, with their audio slideshow" woman with a beard "from Reporter Forum in the category 'Best Webreportage 2009' ..."
"In this teaching project create students in small groups together so-called Web-based reports of a wiki."
"Audio Slide Shows: set to music publishers discover photo-reportage. The web reports tell stories in pictures and place them with sound bites of the protagonists, sounds or music, sometimes build ... "
"Webreportage of the Week: Advent Calendar on the Web"
These examples show that "web report" is a generic term for everything imaginable. At the same time, the search results even beyond the individual consideration and are pars pro toto for the whole dilemma of the journalistic canon of forms on the web: It exists still in its infancy. Even those who should know actually use, obviously diverse names for itself identical shapes or use - in reverse - a particular label as the name for a wide variety of forms.
There's almost every time something else in it
The latter is prominent for the term "web report": As a label for whatever kind of online content, the neologism is undoubtedly widespread. However, anyone who looks into the word and the signified is considered in more detail, have to say: There's almost every time something else in there. About audio slideshows are often referred to with the term "Webreportage", then it is garnished with multimedia texts, then for the web produced television reports and finally also a proliferation of Advent up to Textwiki.
That it was bound to happen, it was clear anyway: whether print, radio or television - all ancestral types of media know the reportage as a form and the type and functions are partly similar. Only identical they are already why not because they are working with different display modes (writing, photo, audio, moving images set to music) and now take place at one time in a linked versions on the web. That must confuse you.
Some of it is really annoying
Almost twenty years after the birth of the publicly available WWW there is such a thing as a concept confusion about the journalistic things on the web. And consequently there is a lack of consensus as to what is journalism on the Web in the reception range can be applicable named. Some of it is pretty annoyed. The online journalist Fabian Schweyher writes for example: "I can no longer read: When the Internet of audio-visual content is mentioned, quickly fall terms such as web reporting, web documentation - or even in English: Web Documentary. What is this? Everything and nothing. "
Attempts to systematize the online journalistic narrative forms, while there has been an early stage (and I've also involved), the effect they have so far, however apparently little to nothing.
High time for a new advance, at least these to outline a concept more clearly and to ask: What exactly is now a web report?
This rather long guessed text aims to answer this question. For those who are in a hurry, I therefore already say at this point: There she is, the web reportage. And: A specific variant of the audio slideshow shows all the typical characteristics of the report and therefore can also be justified referred to as web reportage.
What is a form of representation?
Who wants to answer the question, you must first know how the report is to identify as a journalistic form of representation, thus it needs a report definition. With such a definition can then be checked whether there is reportage on the Web in general, and - in particular - whether what is now called the web reportage, also founded as a specific form of online reportage can be referred to or not.
Attempts to define the report as a form of representation, there are many, across different types of media. In order to select an appropriate from the definitions is yet to be determined in advance, what is actually a form of representation is: Scientifically speaking are forms of representation communicative processes, they are useful communication expectations of expectations. This means: on the one hand, the recipient would expect from a medium that it meets certain functions (such as inform, criticize, orient, etc.). And the offering editors expect the recipients precisely such information expectations and respond by developing appropriate forms. In this way, the public and media are coupled to each other and the concrete forms of representation contour in each case over time in an interplay of supply and demand.
Also for the report, this means that it is not defined as a form once and for all, and changes over time. That which we call a report today saw fifty or a hundred years ago, gradually different from what we mean by it today - and it is also at least gradually look like in ten, fifty or a hundred years, unlike today.
The Print Report
Forms of representation are somewhat flowing, continually changing, even if they usually walk very slowly. They meet for the recipient in each case a communication-related typeable purpose, they have a function. And about their function can be defined.
So what then is the function of the reportage? The Leipzig journalism scientist Michael Haller has this in his classic work "The report," leaning identified to Johann Gottfried Seume, five demands to the report:
· The report documented (documentation).
· The report is authentic (authenticity).
· The report provides verified factual statements (credibility).
· This report illustrates sensual directly-experienced events (immediacy).
· The report is honest, it takes the issue more important than oneself (honesty).
Functionally the modern reportage is in Haller's perspective, a hybrid form:
· It serves the purpose of the trip report: The reporter or the reporter overcomes distance and is Substitute (in) the reader on site.
· It fulfills the function of the eye-witness report: The reporter or the reporter overcomes barriers and opens up the reader so far Locked.
· The goal is to share with the reading public in a scene is. And his journalistic tool for this is a "narrative as well be outlined language. It conveys what happened concrete, sensual and immediate. "
Of course there is in print journalism diverse varieties of reportage, of the investigative report on the travel report on the search report up to the portrait. The drawn up by Haller identifiers are valid for all game species, they are common to these form, basing its comparison.
The TV report
For the consideration of narrative in the open web, it needs additionally at least a definition of another type of media, because the Web is a multi medium in which not only the written language as a mode will be used. Comparable modal representation freedoms offers most television. Also in this type of media, there are different definitions for the television report.
Similar to the TV journalist Haller Bodo Witzke has chosen a functional approach, which in many aspects is consistent with the theses Haller, partly explicitly anknüpft it. Witzke defines the television reportage follows:
· The report deals with an exploration of reality.
· The report is told by an eye witness who is open to new and surprising.
· The report consists of objective facts and subjective impressions.
· The reporter has to use his freedom as a journalist for subjectivity responsible.
· The report tells a story.
· The reportage story is told from the perspective of eyewitnesses.
· The reportage story is the interior view of an event, no outside view.
· The reportage story has a chronological, linear development (it forms a space-time continuum).
· The need for a story drama (opening / Conflict Construction / highlight / relaxation) results in the ideal case of the event.
· The report leaves the viewer to experience the narrative.
· The overarching goal of the report is to tell Authentic so that it looks authentic to convey as directly as possible a piece of reality.
It is easy to see that the TV report is to understand as an authentic narrative piece that captures an event from the perspective of eyewitnesses to let it experience the audience. The function of the print report and the function of television news appear in this light in the core congruent, so there's media cross-genre characteristics of reportage as representation shape.
The web report
These characteristics in turn can be consistently transferred to the web and use them for the systematic analysis of narrative offered there open. When a web narrative material is referred to as a Web report, it should already show the properties mentioned.
Is anklungen As in the introduction to this analysis, today especially the audio slideshow is referred to as a Web report. The term audio slideshow, set to music that is the Picture Gallery, whereby she draws inspiration on the used display modes, ie sound and image in a linearly organized form. This has the advantage that there is hardly difficult to discern an Audio Slideshow: It is just a sequence of images with underlaid soundtrack. Functional again meet the different varieties of audio slideshow, different tasks. Only two examples of the spectrum: Sometimes they are put under music Click distances without internal narrative dramaturgy. But sometimes they are just too dramatic through-composed illustrated audio narrative pieces.
In terms of function to show just those audio slide shows that present themselves as dramatically illustrated through-composed audio narrative pieces, often all the hallmarks of reportage. The audio slideshow in this variant is therefore glaskar an original report form if it has the following features:
· It was locally researched (documentation).
· It is authentic, ie on personal home inspection company-bound (authenticity).
· The reporter or the reporter was a symbol witness go (immediacy).
· The reporter or the reporter occurs only for compelling narrative reasons (honesty) in history.
· There is overcome distance in terms of the tradition of travel features.
· There will be overcome within the meaning of the tradition of the eyewitness report barrier.
- Updates (5:11:11 and 4:11:12) -
If you also want a webtypische reportage be identified in contrast to the print reportage and TV reporting, then it also requires distinctive distinct properties as its own publishable only in the web version. Are proposed:
· The web documentary is narrated multimodal.
· The web documentary is (also) told live.
· The web report interactively (in the sense of collaboratively) to be told.
· The dominant mode used is not mandatory font.
· The dominant mode used is not necessarily moving image.
· The dominant modes used are sound and photo.
· The dominant mode used is not mandatory photo.
· The dominant mode used is not necessarily sound.
· It depends primarily on the topic, which mode is dominant use.
So far, so good. Also, a Web-reportage is ultimately one thing above all: a report. It seems natural to distinguish the web between static and dynamic forms of web reporting. Finally reportage found on the web instead of in a liquid continuum; reports can be presented either as a flow-process pattern or as a chrono-frozen time slices here.
The audio slideshow as the format is certainly suitable in principle for narrative web report. Conversely, however, applies: Not every Audioslidehow is necessarily a "web report" The function of narrative form "report" is not solely bound to the combination of photo-media mode with audio.. Thus, there are on the web a whole range of other text, also show the media in many different fields applicable trademark of the presentation of reportage. Completely different nature, for example, the live Twitter-written report by Brian Stelter about the hurricane devastation in Joplin.
And finally, this thought: The media types separate in order to successively categories. To separate print journalism from Online Journalism, rapidly loses its meaning. If written language media in the future will no longer be printed but nurmehr published digitally, then what we call the print report today, the monomodal written language variant of the - report.